June 25, 2022

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What Englishmen? | News

Englishism still causes a lot of talk in French-speaking cottages. “Occupying everything”, “distorting language”, “That is the beginning of integration! “

However, in reality, it will not be. “Anglicans are rare, they are temporary, they are arbitrarily adapted to the structure of everyday French, they do not distort anything,” lists Professor Shana Boblock, founder of the Sociology Laboratory at the University of Ottawa. In about thirty in-depth studies, she removes what she calls a myth. “Their effect is incredibly weak.”

Office québécois de la langue françise if Revised the criteria for accepting Englishmen in 2017, Which is part of this world power Thanksgiving. Growing up in New York, he discovered linguistics while studying romantic languages ​​and literature on the sorority. For her PhD at the University of Pennsylvania, Shana Poplock first became interested in the Puerto Rican speech in Philadelphia in the 1970s. He then moved to Ottawa in 1982 where he opened his laboratory and studied in depth the relationship between the two major languages. An urban area that transcends linguistic, geographical and political boundaries.

Rena Torres Cagoulos, professor of linguistics and Spanish at Pennsylvania State University and editor-in-chief of the magazine, said: “Linguists are well versed in all of his work. Language variation and change. “We all have a map of the Ottawa and Catino neighborhoods in our luggage. “

Shana Poplock is based on a very comprehensive database based on her 40 years of work. The heart of his work is based on hundreds of hours of conversations from a randomly selected Ottawa-Cotino area with 120 people from Ontario and Quebec. Transcriptions were skinned, checked several times, and analyzed lengthily, diagonally, and diagonally according to a weighing system based on each speaker’s bilingualism, education, and knowledge of the French language.

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For comparative and analytical purposes, his team examined the records of “descriptions of Quebec French in the past” compiled by historian Jacques Lacorcio from 37 people born in Quebec between 1846 and 1895, as well as the speech of 166 Quebecs. He also compiled a directory of 163 French grammars published between 1530 and 1998. A few dozen foreign doctoral students have created a database of 16 language pairs in English-Tamil, English-Ukrainian, French-Tunisian Arabic and more. – In order to give her other comparisons, she can refine her observations.

What we call “Englishism” is a c-by with three different ideas. The phrase “I watermarked” my blog last night When eating cookies Includes Spontaneous Englishism (“Watch”) and Established Anglicism (Blog). Such as ” When eating cookies “, Which is a” code converter “that is a sequence of English sequences.

Thus, of the 3.5 million words in his corpus, borrowing events account for less than 1% of the words used. Of this total, only 7% – hence 7% or 0.07% of 1% – are arbitrary Englishmen. In addition, 96% of these loans correspond to French grammar and syntax. The verbs are all connected as a verb like “love” in the first group.

“The big breakthrough is the strong opposition to the host language,” says Natalie Dion, research coordinator at the Social Linguistics Laboratory, where she worked for 18 years. At risk, he explains, are the “indirect rules” of language known to everyone before kindergarten. “I ‘see,'” she quoted the case. Since the past tense is usually in English, arbitrary Englishism would logically change the verb to the simple past tense (“I” watchai “). However, in French, the verb tense is related to the literary style; ”) Will create.” So, the language that receives changes the words, ”says Natalie Dion,“ there is no other way. “

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But why the English? Sociologists’ answer to this question is very simple: “Why not?” “All languages ​​borrow words from others, and always, all the time, it’s normal, because there is no such thing as pure language,” explains Julie Agar, a sociologist at the University of Montreal. Each person has his or her own motives, which can be gait, quote, neology, snobbery or ignorance, but there are serious tendencies. “In the Renaissance, it was Italianism. There was the era of the Germans. There it was the era of the English – for all languages.”

Focusing primarily on how much and how, Shana Poplock eagerly searches for evidence of peak risk. English: The power to change language. “The woman I’m dating” is a frequently mentioned case. However, a study of older grammars reveals that the system of “with” is in fact a North-Eastern form condemned by 17th-century grammarians.e Century. “An ancient French form of the great fear of Englishism persisted into schooling for centuries,” says Shana Boblock.

His third major invention relates to code change, where the French and English series are linked. When English represents 1% of spoken words, the alternatives are 0.08% – 12 times less. “Shana has shown that it is very bilingual to make the most subtle changes within a sentence, without changing the grammar of the two languages,” says Julie Agar.

If the English have very little influence on the French, where does the opposite come from? The answer lies in sociology, politics and puritanism.

Sociologists are familiar with the concept of “kind of concept”, in which the listener tends to magnify the sense of a linguistic event, while the event appears formal to him, while its use varies, albeit rarely. Shana Poplock, however, said the annoying English languages ​​are pronounced the English way, while the others go almost unnoticed. But pronunciation, he said, is the most superficial part of the language. “

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Political discourses often criticize the English as the Trojan horse that integrates. “It has nothing to do with that,” says Shana Poplock. Integration occurs when a person stops using the French language. “

Purism is another major insult to English, but this rejection is consistent with the old fierce battle between popular speech (considered vulgar) and normative (pure). “Criticism of Anglicism is part of the stigma of the popular form,” explains Rena Torres Cagolos, who observes the same thing in English and Spanish.

If you really want to annoy Shana Poplock, all you have to do is identify the British as a degraded, corrupt, disgusting French – in short, a sign of “half language”. The “social” side of linguists immediately rises to prominence. “There is a good plot to turn language into a weapon to exclude minorities or the less educated,” he said. In fact, even the best teachers, when they speak, use French very differently from what they teach, and that is this language. The vernacular, the most stable in history, forms the true linguistic background of the phonographs. The English in it are nothing but the result The natural process for interpersonal communication. “