November 30, 2021

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The history of limousines removed by the British in 1370 is mentioned in Ridley Scott’s “Last Battle”.

As British director Ridley Scott was interested in the wars in the medieval Haute-Vienne. His Robin Hood, Released in 2010, which rebuilt the Battle of Salus. From the first minute, while besieging the castle, the world public discovered the place where King Richard the Lionheart of England was fatally struck by a crossbow bolt.

The black prince considers himself a traitor

Eleven years later, the filmmaker evokes another chapter in the Hundred Years’ War: The Sock of Limoges. This time again from the beginning of his new film The last fight.

A bloody event took place in September 1370, which took place at the present location of the street perpendicular to Bond Saint-Etienne Street. At that time, the city was divided into two: the castle, which was managed by the English, and the city, which was managed by Bishop Jean de Cross.

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This man of the Church was very close to Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, later nicknamed the “Black Prince”, even the eldest son’s godfather.

However, under the command of Jean de Berry, Jean de Cross crosses the Wales Prince by opening the city gates to French troops.

According to some historians, the black prince believed he had betrayed himself and would engage in 6,400 warriors, and even come to Cognac, Sorrento, and Limoges, though ill. Carrying on a bed, he insists on being there to wipe away the shame.

Limousines, cadastral plan 1812. We can clearly see the city and the fort.

Men, women and children were killed

On September 13 or 14, the army was at the gates of the city, which then expanded to more than 10 hectares, surrounded by walls and accessed by six gates. At Sept. 19, part of the troops rushed in, at the level of the Aurasia Tower between Port Bonnet and Bond Saint-Etienne. The looting of the city then begins.

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In Archaeological and Historical Bulletin of LimousineAlfred Leroux reports that the attack took place in the early hours of the morning and that people were still asleep. “Hearing the sounds of gunfire and clicks, many people had to leave their homes and disturb the alleys to find out what was going on.”

No wonder it was written that the British were ordered to kill without pardon. Men, women and children are destroyed.

Robbery and arson

According to historian Froyshord, “The entire population of Limousin would have knelt before the English prince for mercy.

He claims that British forces massacred 3,000 people. According to Alfred Lerox, the British looted and then effectively burned the city, but as a monk from Saint-Martial, 300 died. And not 3,000.

“The real nature of the capture of Limoges by a black prince was not a dismissal and a massacre of men,” Alfred Lerox recalled, for whom Freychard’s account of facts was “exaggerated”. Sure, he was “hard to find” but questioned the winners … so were the English. Hence his discriminatory presentation.

Will be mentioned in the show Test De Montein was then in England for many centuries in France.

In an in-depth analysis of the impact of this event, historian Catherine Four-Delhum notes that after World War II, local historians compared the history of limousines and valiant French knights with limousine resistance. And the Orador-Sir-Glenn massacre.

In both cases, the cities were set on fire and innocent people were massacred. One way to elevate patriotic sentiments and revisit history through them is to say, “Limousine identity creates the best qualities that limousines have had for centuries: a sense of courage, sacrifice and resistance in the face of adversity.”

Two historians study the limousine sac and its impact

Thomas Schneider Doctor of Medieval History in Limoges under the supervision of Anne Masoni.
Pascal Texier President of the Limousine Archaeological and Historical Society. Cross-interview.


Who was the black prince behind the attack on the city of Limoges?

Thomas Schneider: “He is the eldest son of King Edward III, Prince of Wales and Queen Duke. The legend surrounding this bloodthirsty and cruel man is not so black. The black prince was not called this way until the 16th century. Is involved. “

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Pascal Texier: He was a man of considerable personality, a brave man, a great captain, a leader of men. Today, by our sensibility, some would qualify him as a war criminal. But the historian should not take a moral view. The black prince was the man of his time. In the mid-1346s and 1360s, he conquered everywhere by leading rides. This war tactic involves aiming at a target, taking it, looting and exiting. His face still fascinates the English today. “

How is the city captured?

Thomas Schneider: “They used the mining method: they dug the galleries, dissolved them with beams and then set fire to the beams. The gallery collapsed, along with the wall.”

Pascal Texier: ” This is the strategy of the strike. We create a weakness, a breach to attack the city. The street they entered has long been known as the Ru de la Mine. “

Is he attacking the city because he thinks he was betrayed by Bishop Jean de Cross?

Thomas Schneider: “This is a personal story, but not only that. You have to understand that Limoges represents a political issue. It is an important place for the Aquitaine Duchy. Attack. He is in his role when he intervenes. The attack is systematic. This massacre, with our modern sense, makes us scream. At the time, these abuses were not exceptional.

Pascal Texier: “We should not ignore personal relationships between two people. From 1368, Du Gesklin led the recapture of French territory. The king’s brother, Perry Duke, later came to Limoges to change his alliance with Jean de Cross. The latter accepts seeing the political situation change. Reading the evidence, we understand that there is an angry reaction from the black prince, who is also shown as a little soup au light. For him it was personal betrayal. “

Does this phenomenon increase anti-English sentiment?

Pascal Texier: “At that time, there was no idea of ​​a nation. So there is no patriotism, only those who speak the same language depending on this or that Lord. Anti-English, it does not mean anything. People recognize the dominance of one or the other. “

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Thomas Schneider: “Talking about anti-English sentiment is not a historical fact. The King of England, Lord Aquitaine, is at home in Limoges. It should also be noted that the English impact is not so negative. The history of Limoges benefited from English domination. The British were not the enemy here then. “

Pascal Texier: “But after 9 years of the Limoges episode, it will be instrumentalized from Frozart’s chronology. The task of rebuilding the Kingdom of France will then be done around a common enemy, the English.”
Does the event create a limousine identity?

Thomas Schneider: “It’s part of the limousine identity myth, because we are in a state of resistance, of sacrifice. This event was mainly used in terms of non – neutral history.”

Pascal Texier: “It always pays to think so, and I’m a limousine too. But as we make comparative history, we understand that combat wartime is the most classic approach. Relating this survival process to a political and social project is even more specific.”

proof’s

Bulletin of the Limousine Archaeological and Historical Society Alfred Leroux recalled from his pen that there were four immediate sources related to this event.

Limoges-Château Embassy’s Cartulage, probably written by the embassy’s ordinary writer, The second text is in the Notary Register of Limoges. The third comes from the manuscript of Saint-Martial Abe, and the fourth, more precisely, is taken from the testimony of a monk from Usersey Abe. Alfred Lerox thinks this monk may have been a direct witness to the events.

Four other sources, then, are cited, including Froysart’s sources Bulletin of the Archaeological Society, “Took trouble to find” but questioned the winners … hence the English. Alfred Lerox rejects some of the characters and tries to base them on stories that seem too objective to him.

Go further: Read Bulletin of the Limousine Archaeological and Historical Society. How about this book again This event marked the identity of the limousine.

Frank Logier